Let’s begin from the end of the story: this time, apparently, Turkish tanners and leather traders have opened their eyes wide, as they remonstrated against the government and its decision to raise export duties. Hence, they asked for “less restrictive measures”. They were compelled to do it, since Turkey decided to raise again customs duties, formerly sanctioned last summer. In August 2017 they had imposed a tax, namely 500 dollars per ton on bovine wet blue hides export and 40 per cent on incomes coming from sheep and goat semi-finished leather sales. Turkish government has now toughened up protectionism: in fact, they have imposed 20 more cents per square foot, as for sheep and goat wet blue, and 50 more cents per kilogram, as for bovine salted raw material. In October 2017, the Market Access Advisory Committee (MAAC), from the Trade general management of the European Commission, had pledged to support European tanners. Apparently, their commitment has been unsuccessful so far. Allegedly, split leather will not be affected by the latest duty raise: for the records, in the previous decree split leather had been added, due to a red-tape error, to the list of goods included in the export ban.